“El mapa de la Vía Láctea” (Córdoba, 15 Sept 2016)

Medio: Diario Córdoba

Título: “El mapa de la Vía Láctea”

Página web: http://www.diariocordoba.com/noticias/sociedad/mapa-via-lactea_1078042.html

Publicación: 15 Septiembre 2016

PROGRAMA EUROPEO DE OBSERVACIÓN ASTRONÓMICA

El mapa de la Vía Láctea

Ha calculado la velocidad y la distancia al Sol de dos millones de estrellas. La misión ‘Gaia’ presenta la cartografía obtenida en sus dos primeros años

 

ANTONIO MADRIDEJOS
15/09/2016

  • Atlas de la Vía Láctea con detalle de algunas galaxias. - FRANCOIS MIGNARD
    Atlas de la Vía Láctea con detalle de algunas galaxias. – FRANCOIS MIGNARD

La misión europea Gaia, diseñada para realizar la cartografía más precisa de la Vía Láctea, ha confeccionado en sus primeros dos años de operación un mapa con la ubicación de 1.142 millones de fuentes lumínicas y, además, ha determinado la velocidad de movimiento y la distancia al Sol de unos dos millones de estrellas, un trabajo todavía preliminar pero que ya supone una auténtica revolución en el conocimiento de nuestra galaxia, como destacó ayer la Agencia Espacial Europea (ESA). «La misión ayudará a responder muchas de las preguntas sobre su origen y evolución [de la Vía Láctea]», argumentó la agencia.

Gaia, un proyecto en el que participan centros de investigación y empresas de 25 países, con destacada presencia de España, fue lanzada al espacio en diciembre del 2013 y se encuentra ahora en una órbita a 1,5 millones de kilómetros de la Tierra, en el llamado punto de Lagrange o L2, un lugar alejado de las influencias gravitatorias que le aporta la deseada estabilidad sin tener que gastar mucha energía para mantenerse. Uno de los grupos líderes de la misión es el del Instituto de Ciencias del Cosmos de la Universitat de Barcelona y del Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Cataluña.

Gaia nunca se detiene: girando sobre sí misma y en pequeño movimiento circular, escruta la inmensidad de la galaxia (100.000 años luz de diámetro) y diariamente registra datos de 50 millones de estrellas. En total, en los primeros dos años de trabajo Gaia ha obtenido 500.000 millones de imágenes individuales y 110.000 millones de espectros, «cifras que superan todo lo que se había llegado a observar a lo largo de los siglos», según la ESA. Los resultados han sido publicados en la revista especializada Astronomy & Astrophysics.

Dotada con dos telescopios de altísima precisión que enfocan en sentidos opuestos –lo que permite determinar posiciones relativas–, Gaia tiene por delante dos años más de misión –cuatro si cristaliza la prórroga que solicitan los científicos del equipo–, por lo que la cantidad de datos «aún mejorará por mil», como explicaron dos de los investigadores que han participado en la misión, Cesca Figueras y Claus Fabricius. De hecho, el inventario obtenido representa menos del 1% de la cantidad de estrellas que se estima hay en la Vía Láctea, que probablemente contiene entre 100.000 y 200.000 millones de estrellas.

Por poner un ejemplo, donde se halla el disco de la Vía Láctea, en la parte central de la imagen, se observan unas estructuras irregulares en las que aparentemente hay menor densidad de galaxias. Ello es debido a que Gaia no ha podido profundizar en sus observaciones debido a la presencia de gas y polvo interestelar: este material bloquea la luz de las estrellas lejanas que hay detrás. «Estas estructuras se diluirán cuando acabe la misión», prosigue la investigadora. Cada rincón de la galaxia será observado al menos 70 veces a lo largo de toda la misión.

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