Entrevisten Carme Jordi a La Vanguardia (27 de Feb 2017)

Diari La Vanguardia
27 de Febrer de 2017
Enllaç a la notícia: http://www.lavanguardia.com/ciencia/fisica-espacio/20170227/42321522721/como-posible-saber-distancia-estrellas.html

¿Cómo es posible saber la distancia a las estrellas?

Los astrónomos utilizan dos métodos, uno de medición directa y el otro de medición indirecta

¿Cómo es posible saber la distancia a las estrellas?

Gaia cartografiando las estrellas de la Vía Láctea (AFP / AFP)

 

, Astrofísica del Institut de Ciències del Cosmos de la UB

Para calcular a qué distancia se encuentra una estrella respecto a la Tierra, los astrónomos utilizan dos métodos, uno de medición directa y otro de medición indirecta.

El primero se denomina paralaje y se basa en un efecto de perspectiva. Consiste en observar una estrella en momentos distintos del año y establecer un triángulo entre la posición de la estrella, el Sol y la Tierra en cada momento. El pequeño cambio de perspectiva al cambiar la posición de la Tierra es lo que nos permite calcular la distancia midiendo los ángulos resultantes.

La distancia a las estrellas es muy grande y por tanto los ángulos de paralaje son muy pequeños, lo que dificulta obtener una medida precisa. El satélite Gaia de la Agencia Espacial Europea (ESA) es el instrumento científico que puede realizar esta medición con mayor precisión para mil millones de estrellas. Tiene una tecnología tan precisa que sería capaz de distinguir los ojos de un astronauta que paseara por la Luna.

El método directo calcula el efecto de perspectiva al observar la estrella en momentos distintos del año

Con estrellas muy lejanas, sin embargo, los ángulos de paralaje son tan pequeños que no pueden medirse. En ese caso, los astrónomos recurren a un método indirecto para calcular a qué distancia se encuentran. El método consiste en comparar la luz que emite la estrella con la luz que recibimos y, a partir de esta comparación, se deduce la distancia.

Para saber cuánta luz emite la estrella, ésta se equipara a otras del mismo tipo que estén más cerca. Para ello, debemos fijarnos en el color de la estrella. Por ejemplo, si observamos una estrella del mismo tipo que el sol, asumimos que emite la misma luz. Del mismo modo, podemos equiparar una gigante roja, o una enana amarilla, o una gigante azul lejanas con otras del mismo tipo que estén más cerca. Conociendo la distancia de estas estrellas más cercanas gracias al paralaje, y comparando la diferencia de luz que nos llega de las dos, podemos deducir la distancia a la estrella más lejana.

El método indirecto consiste en comparar la luz que emite la estrella con la luz que recibimos

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