“El mapa de la Vía Láctea” (El Periódico de Aragón, 15 Sept 2016)

 

Medio: El Periódico de Aragón

 

Título: “El mapa de la Vía Láctea”

 

Página web: http://www.elperiodicodearagon.com/noticias/sociedad/mapa-via-lactea_1141594.html

 

Publicación: 15 Septiembre 2016

 

El mapa de la Vía Láctea

La misión europea ‘Gaia’ presenta la cartografía obtenida en dos años. Ha determinadola velocidad y la distancia al Sol de dos millones de estrellas

ANTONIO MADRIDEJOS
15/09/2016

La misión europea Gaia, diseñada para realizar la cartografía más precisa de la Vía Láctea, ha confeccionado en sus primeros dos años de operación un mapa con la ubicación de 1.142 millones de fuentes lumínicas y, además, ha determinado la velocidad de movimiento y la distancia al Sol de unos dos millones de estrellas, un trabajo todavía preliminar pero que ya supone una auténtica revolución en el conocimiento de nuestra galaxia, como destacó ayer la Agencia Espacial Europea (ESA).

“La misión ayudará a responder muchas de las preguntas sobre su origen y evolución de la Vía Láctea”, dijo la agencia.

Gaia, un proyecto en el que participan centros de investigación y empresas de 25 países, con destacada presencia de España, fue lanzada al espacio en diciembre del 2013 y se encuentra ahora en una órbita a 1,5 millones de kilómetros de la Tierra, en el llamado punto de Lagrange o L2, un lugar alejado de las influencias gravitatorias que le aporta la deseada estabilidad sin tener que gastar mucha energía para mantenerse. Uno de los grupos líderes de la misión es el del Instituto de Ciencias del Cosmos de la Universidad de Barcelona (ICCUB).

Gaia nunca se detiene: girando sobre sí misma y en pequeño movimiento circular, escruta la inmensidad de la galaxia (100.000 años luz de diámetro) y diariamente registra datos de 50 millones de estrellas. En total, en los primeros dos años de trabajo Gaia ha obtenido 500.000 millones de imágenes individuales y 110.000 millones de espectros, “cifras que superan todo lo que se había llegado a observar a lo largo de los siglos”, según la ESA.

Los resultados han sido publicados en la revista especializada Astronomy & Astrophysics.

Dotada con dos telescopios de altísima precisión que enfocan en sentidos opuestos –lo que permite determinar posiciones relativas–, Gaia tiene por delante dos años más de misión –cuatro si cristaliza la prórroga que solicitan los científicos del equipo. De hecho, el inventario obtenido representa menos del 1% de la cantidad de estrellas que se estima hay en la Vía Láctea, que probablemente contiene entre 100.000 y 200.000 millones de estrellas. Por poner un ejemplo, donde se halla el disco de la Vía Láctea, en la parte central de la imagen, se observan unas estructuras irregulares en las que aparentemente hay menor densidad de galaxias. Ello es debido a que Gaia no ha podido profundizar en sus observaciones debido a la presencia de gas y polvo interestelar: este material bloquea la luz de las estrellas lejanas que hay detrás. Cada rincón de la galaxia será observado al menos 70 veces a lo largo de toda la misión.

PRECISIÓN SIMILAR AL ‘HUBBLE’

El mapa obtenido tiene una precisión media de unos 10 milisegundos de arco, similar a la del telescopio espacial Hubble, aunque este solo cubre una pequeña región del espacio. De hecho, el telescopio Hubble utilizará el mapa de Gaia como cartografiado básico para preparar y analizar sus observaciones.

“Además de este gran mapa de posiciones, en esta publicación se han dado a conocer las distancias y movimientos relativos de más de dos millones de estrellas de nuestro entorno más cercano (cientos de años luz) con una precisión sin precedentes”, destaca el equipo en una nota.

Esto permitirá a los astrofísicos analizar el entorno solar en tres dimensiones, “y abre nuevas ventanas a los estudios de la física estelar y a los mecanismos de formación y evolución de las estrellas”.

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