Objetivos científicos

 


Nuestra Galaxia

Como no podemos ver nuestra propia galaxia desde fuera, todavía hay muchas incógnitas sobre su estructura. Con Gaia vamos a resolver muchas de estas incógnitas. ¿Cuántos brazos espirales tiene nuestra Galaxia? ¿dos o cuatro? ¿Cómo se mueven las estrellas cuando cruzan los brazos espirales? ¿Cómo se formó la Galaxia? El movimiento de la materia visible en la Galaxia revela información importante sobre la masa no visible. Gaia nos da más detalles acerca de esta materia oscura.

Las estrellas

Las estrellas son los componentes más visibles de las galaxias. Las estrellas se mueven a través del espacio alrededor del centro galáctico y evolucionan en escalas de tiempo de miles de millones de años. La vida humana es muy corta en comparación con estas escalas de tiempo, sólo podemos inferir cosas sobre la vida de las estrellas observando muchas y comparando sus propiedades para crear una linea temporal de su evolución. Los astrónomos crean esta línea temporal usando el diagrama de Hertzsprung-Russell (HR). Gaia proporciona los datos necesarios (luminosidad intrínseca y color) para producir el diagrama HR más detallado de nuestra galaxia jamás producido. También nos ofrece la composición química de las estrellas para entender el enriquecimiento químico del medio interestelar.

Otros descubrimientos de Gaia

Además de los miles de millones de estrellas, Gaia está observando y descubriendo otros tipos de objetos. Gaia descubrirá a final de la misión unas 200.000 enanas blancas, 50.000 enanas marrones, 30.000 planetas extrasolares, 200 eventos microlentes gravitatorias, 200.000 asteroides (aproximadamente un millar de ellos con órbitas cercanas a la Tierra, potencialmente peligrosos), 100.000 explosiones de novas y supernovas, de 1 a 10 millones de galaxias resueltas, 500.000 cuásares, ..

asteroide

Laboratorio de Física Fundamental

La alta precisión de las medidas de Gaia permiten observar los efectos predichos por la relatividad general, como la desviación de la luz al pasar junto a un cuerpo muy masivo, que se observan en la posición de las estrellas en el cielo. La comparación entre las predicciones hechas por la teoría y las observaciones serán una prueba muy exigente para la teoría y permitirá el refinamiento de uno de sus parámetros (el parámetro γ). Las observaciones de Gaia también verificarán si la constante de la gravedad G de la ley de Newton es realmente constante en el tiempo.

fonamental

 

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