La Estructura y Componentes de la Galaxia

 


Líneas de Investigación

El trazado de los brazos espirales externos de la Vía Láctea: el brazo de Perseus

Hemos llevado a cabo un mapeado fotométrico en sistema Strömgren (uvbyHbeta) que cubre 16 grados cuadrados en la dirección del anticentro galáctico utilizando la cámara de campo amplio (WFC) del telescopio Isaac Newton (Monguió et al 2013). Este es un sistema apropiado para identificar estrellas jóvenes y obtener distancias y edades precisas. El límite en magnitud de nuestro mapeado es de V~17 mag en los 8 grados centrales y de 15.5 en el resto. Además hemos desarrollado un nuevo método para derivar parámetros físicos utilizando redes de parámetros atmosféricos y trayectorias evolutivas. A partir de este catálogo hemos sido capaces de detectar el brazo espiral de Perseus en la dirección del anticentro (M. Monguió, 2013, tesis de doctorado, y Monguió et al 2013; 2014; 2015).
En paralelo, estamos estudiando datos espectroscópicos obtenidos con WYFFOS en el telescopio William Herschel, que nos permitirán detectar los efectos cinemáticos del brazo espiral de Perseus.

Caracterización de la población estelar de las coronas de los cúmulos abiertos

En colaboración con el Observatorio de San Fernando (ROA) hemos obtenido movimientos propios de gran calidad en una área extensa de una selección de alrededor de 40 cúmulos abiertos. Estos datos nos permitirán estudiar su cinemática y, en particular, las coronas de los cúmulos con una precisión sin precedentes. Se ha obtenido asrometría en una zona de varias veces el radio conocido de cada cúmulo (Webda) con los círculos meridianos automáticos CMASF en El Leoncito (Argentina) y CTA en La Palma. Para complementar su caracterización haremos uso de fotometría Strömgren de campo amplio. Derivamos movimientos propios a partir de las posiciones de las placas POSS-I como primera época, y calculamos probabilidades de pertenencia al cúmulo. Las observaciones hasta una magnitud de r’~17 de los 40 cúmulos están acabadas. Los resultados preliminares de NGC2682, NGC1817, NGC2509 y NGC2264 y una comparación con anteriores determinaciones de movimientos propios ya han sido publicados (Jordi et al., 2013; Balaguer-Núñez et al., 2012). Estos movimientos propios de alta precisión junto a las velocidades radiales de GES permitirán llevar a cabo un análisis cinemático detallado de los cúmulos seleccionados. El análisis de los datos está en curso.

Propiedades físicas de estrellas de baja masa

Los sistemas de binarias espectroscópicas y eclipsantes son uno de los mejores medios para determinar propiedades físicas precisas de las estrellas, incluidas sus masas y radios. Los datos disponibles para las estrellas de masa baja han arrojado una evidencia firme de que los modelos de estructura estelar predicen radios menores y temperaturas efectivas más altas que las observadas, pero el número de sistemas con un análisis detallado es aún pequeño. Hemos realizado un extenso análisis de binarias eclipsantes de baja masa para evaluar el impacto de la actividad estelar en las curvas de luz y en la estructura estelar y los modelos evolutivos, con el fin de reconciliar la teoría con las observaciones.

Se encontró que la actividad estelar (a) distorsiona las curvas de luz produciendo una sobrestimación del radio de un 3% el caso de cobertura permanente de manchas polares , (b) forzando a la estrella a incrementar su radio en un 2% para compensar una baja eficiencia de radiación de las manchas, y (c) un incremento adicional del radio de entre un 0-4% es necesario para compensar la baja eficiencia de la convección en el caso de rotaciones de larga duración (tesis doctoral Morales; Morales et al., 2009; 2010). Utilizamos la relación entre la actividad y la velocidad de rotación para las estrellas de baja masa con una cubierta convectiva para estudiar la dependencia de la posición en el diagrama de actividad – vsini de la inclinación del eje estelar (Herrero et al., 2011). Esto ha sido utilizado para la elaboración de un método que pueda aumentar la eficiencia de una búsqueda de exoplanetas con la técnica del tránsito con la pre-selección de un subconjunto de candidatos de un gran catálogo de estrellas. Suponiendo la alineación entre la órbita y el spin, esto se puede conseguir considerando las estrellas que tienen mayor probabilidad de estar orientadas con una inclinación cerca de 90°.

Actualmente, se está desarrollando una simulación de superficies estelares teniendo en cuenta manchas oscuras y brillantes. La presencia de tales manchas induce incertidumbres en las mediciones astrométricas, fotométricas y espectroscópicas que se están evaluando (Herrero, 2014 tesis doctoral).

Tesis Relacionadas

Publicaciones

  • Morales et al 2009

 

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