Dones amb passió per les estrelles (Diari Ara, 11 Feb 2017)

Dones amb passió per les estrelles

Les dones han fet grans aportacions a l’astronomia, sovint a l’ombra. Avui, tot i que la seva feina és reconeguda, aquesta encara és una de les disciplines amb menys investigadores
  • Les dones computadores de Harvard.
Les dones computadores de Harvard. / HARVARD-SMITHSONIAN CENTER FOR ASTROPHYSICS

Actualment, un 39% de les persones que fan recerca a Catalunya són dones. En algunes àrees, fins i tot són menys. És el cas de l’astronomia, en què el percentatge d’astrònomes no arriba al 30%, explica Cesca Figueras, física i investigadora de l’Institut de Ciències del Cosmos de la UB (ICCUB) i de l’Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC) i presidenta de la Societat Espanyola d’Astronomia. Com a investigadora sènior, forma part del projecte més gran que hi ha en marxa actualment sobre les estrelles, el projecte Gaia, el primer cens i mapa en 3D de la nostra galàxia, que impulsa l’Agència Espacial Europea. Des dels instituts catalans es fa una feina clau des de l’inici de la missió en el disseny, el processament i l’explotació científica de les dades. 8 dels 25 investigadors que hi treballen des de Barcelona són dones. Tot i ser minoria, i seguir lluitant dia a dia per la conciliació igual que passa en altres camps, totes coincideixen que s’ha avançat força respecte a la discriminació brutal que van viure les dones científiques (i les astrònomes en particular) en el passat.

Ara, perquè la seva presència sigui superior, els canvis ja no depenen tan sols del seu entorn més immediat, sinó de canvis més profunds. “Avancem molt lentament amb la famosa gràfica anomenada d’ efecte tisora, que mostra com les estudiants i llicenciades són majoria però la tendència s’inverteix quan ocupem llocs fixos o de responsabilitat”, afirma Figueras. Segons l’informe Científicas en cifras 2015, que la secretaria d’estat de R+D+I ha presentat aquesta mateixa setmana, en la carrera investigadora acadèmica tan sols hi ha un 21% de dones catedràtiques a les universitats públiques. Tot i que, entre els doctorats, la meitat són homes i l’altra meitat dones, són poques les que arriben amunt.

Les rebesàvies de Gaia

Abans de les dones de Gaia, el paper de la dona en l’estudi de les estrelles (i de l’Univers en general) ha sigut molt rellevant, tot i ser minoria. Recentment, la periodista i científica nord-americana Dava Sobel ha publicat el llibre El universo de cristal (editat en castellà per Capitán Swing), un recorregut sobre la història de les dones de Harvard que a mitjans del segle XIX van aconseguir un coneixement de les estrelles que no s’havia tingut mai. Gràcies a la tasca de les dones que van començar a l’Observatori de Harvard es va poder fer el gran salt de l’astronomia clàssica, centrada en l’estudi de la posició de les estrelles, cap a l’astronomia moderna, adreçada a la recerca sobre la seva natura física. Se les va contractar com a “computadores humanes” per interpretar les observacions que els homes feien de nit (tasca considerada no apta per a dones en aquella època) i que captaven amb la fotografia, recentment introduïda en l’observació astronòmica. Primer van ser dones, filles o germanes dels científics. Però ben aviat també hi van poder participar les primeres graduades de les noves universitats que s’havien creat per a dones. No tan sols feien càlculs, sinó que també analitzaven les dades que extreien de milers de plaques fotogràfiques de vidre. Es van fer conegudes com l’ harem de Pickering, cognom del director de l’Observatori, que va lluitar per la seva incorporació en valorar la meticulositat amb què feien la seva feina. “L’univers de vidre de més de mig milió de plaques que Harvard va acumular durant dècades els va permetre fer descobriments extraordinaris”, explica Sobel. “Van ocupar llocs de treball mal pagats, que requerien una dolorosa atenció als detalls”, aprecia Figueras.

Elles van ajudar a identificar de què estaven fetes les estrelles, les van poder dividir en categories i van trobar com mesurar la distància a què estaven mitjançant la llum que emetien. Entre altres dones destacades hi ha Williamina Fleming, que Pickering va contractar originalment com a criada, que va descobrir les nanes blanques, estrelles molt calentes i denses en les seves últimes etapes de vida; Annie Jump Cannon, que va dissenyar un sistema de classificació estel·lar que van adoptar astrònoms de tot el món i que continua vigent; Henrietta Swan-Leavitt, que va descobrir el pilar de l’escala de distàncies de l’Univers, i Cecilia Payne, la primera que va aplicar les lleis de la física atòmica a l’estudi de la temperatura i la densitat de les estrelles. Payne va concloure que l’hidrogen i l’heli, els dos elements més lleugers, també són els més comuns de l’Univers, i va aconseguir arribar a ser la primera cap de departament a Harvard.

Pionera a Catalunya

La primera dona professora universitària d’astronomia a Catalunya (i a tot Espanya) va ser Assumpció Català, a principis dels anys 70. No va ser fàcil. “Hi havia molt poques noies quan vam començar a la universitat, érem cinc o sis. A partir de tercer ja vaig estar sola: era la noia de tercer, la noia de quart, la noia de cinquè…”, explica en un documental sobre dones pioneres produït per la UNED per a TVE.

Les dones de Gaia que avui estudien les estrelles són, en certa manera, hereves de Català. Ella va ser una peça clau en l’equip precursor de la missió Hipparcos, que per primera vegada va mesurar des de l’espai les distàncies que ens separen de les estrelles i els seus moviments. Actualment, el projecte Gaia està observant més de mil milions d’estrelles. Carme Jordi i Cesca Figueras, que van treballar amb Català, són les investigadores sènior del grup i han vist com el nombre de noies en l’astronomia ha anat augmentant. “Quan nosaltres estudiàvem no érem ni el 10%”, recorda Jordi. La recerca també s’ha tornat més multidisciplinària. “Som un equip de físics i enginyers. Ara només tenim una dona en el nostre grup de 9 enginyers, tot i que havien sigut 3”, conclou Jordi.

Dobes i física fonamental

Avui, Dia Internacional de la Dona i la Nena en la Ciència, és un bon dia per visitar la web que ha fet l’Institut de Física d’Altes Energies ( http://girlsinscience.ifae.es ) en què rememora dones que han fet contribucions fonamentals a la física fonamental i presenta les seves investigadores. També hi ha totes les activitats que han preparat. A Catalunya hi ha més centres amb activitats. Al Parc de Recerca Biomèdica de Barcelona s’ha convocat una viquimarató (#viquidonesPRBB) per crear, traduir o millorar articles de la Wikipedia, en qualsevol idioma, sobre científiques i investigadores. A Tarragona l’ICIQ ha organitzat una jornada sobre dones i ciència.

Dones computadores de Harvard

La periodista Dava Sobel ha fet un excel·lent treball de documentació per explicar una gran histoòia sobre les anomenades c omputadores de Harvard, dones que analitzaven amb precisió les dades que recollien els homes amb els telescopis. En aquella època, la prestigiosa universitat no admetia dones estudiants.

Dones, afroamericanes i matemàtiques

La pel·lícula Hidden figures (traduïda al castellà com a Figuras ocultas ) explica la història real de tres científiques afroamericanes que van començar a treballar a la NASA als anys 60, quan els americans volien enviar un home a l’espai, i que, malgrat la seva genialitat, van haver de lluitar durament contra la discriminació.

Lego llança una sèrie amb científiques

La companyia Lego acaba de treure al mercat una col·lecció anomenada Institut d’Investigació, que té com a protagonistes dones científiques. Hi ha col·laborat una geocientífica, Ellen Kooijman, i compta amb una astrònoma, una paleontòloga i una química. La iniciativa va sorgir arran de la carta de queixa d’una nena de 7 anys.

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