CARME JORDI: “Gaia ya ha cubierto el cielo completo” (IAC, 23 Jun 2015)

Media: IAC (Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias)

Title: CARME JORDI: “Gaia ya ha cubierto el cielo completo”

Webpage: http://www.iac.es/divulgacion.php?op1=16&op2=402&id=78

Publication date: 23 June 2015

 

CARME JORDI: “Gaia ya ha cubierto el cielo completo”

La astrónoma participa en el simposio sobre “Primera Ciencia con Gaia” en el marco de EWASS 2015

Carme Jordi es astrónoma en la Universitat de Barcelona y miembro del Gaia Science Team, el equipo que se encarga de los aspectos científicos de la misión Gaia de la Agencia Espacial Europea. El satélite Gaia, situado a un millón y medio de kilómetros de la Tierra, contiene dos telescopios que permitirán elaborar un mapa de posiciones y movimientos de más de mil millones de estrellas de nuestra galaxia. Fue lanzado en diciembre de 2013, y tras corregir algunos desajustes iniciales, empezó sus observaciones el julio de 2014. Ahora se han presentado las estimaciones de los primeros datos de estos meses iniciales.

El satélite Gaia se lanzó en diciembre de 2013, hace ahora un año y medio. ¿Qué ha hecho Gaia desde entonces hasta ahora?

Evidentemente, primero viajó hasta el punto L2, que es su punto de operaciones, a un millón y medio de kilómetros de la Tierra. Los primeros días se testearon todos los sistemas a bordo, en lo que se conoce como la fase de comisionado del instrumento: se comprueba que todo funciona bien, incluido el software, y también hay un proceso de enfriado de los espejos y de descontaminación del satélite. Esta fase de comisionado fue algo más larga de lo previsto –se esperaba que acabara a finales de abril y duró hasta mediados de julio de 2014– porque nos encontramos con algunas sorpresas. Por ejemplo, se había depositado agua en los espejos porque no se había eliminado del todo la humedad residual del satélite. Por otra parte, la dispersión de la luz del Sol en los extremos del parasol daba como resultado un fondo del cielo más elevado de lo que habíamos calculado. Una vez resueltos estos y otros pequeños problemas, Gaia pudo empezar a observar las estrellas y objetos de la Vía Láctea a finales de julio.

¿Qué ha observado Gaia en los primeros diez meses desde su efectiva puesta en marcha?

Desde julio de 2014 Gaia ha estado observando nominalmente. Y ya hemos hemos cubierto el cielo completo, con unos dos mil millones de fuentes observadas, algo más de lo previsto inicialmente, porque hemos observado también objetos de magnitudes más débiles.

En diez meses Gaia ha realizado 20 mil millones de observaciones, con un total de 180 mil millones de imágenes individuales.  La media es de unos dos millones de observaciones por hora. Gaia ha registrado también 40 mil millones de espectros de baja resolución y un millón y medio de espectros de alta resolución. En conjunto, 44 terabytes de datos brutos. Es muchísimo más de lo que hasta ahora se había podido recoger desde Tierra sobre la Vía Láctea.

Una parte importantísima de esta misión es el software, tanto el que está a bordo de Gaia como el que desde Tierra tiene que ingestar y procesar todos estos datos. Todo este software se ha diseñado en base a datos simulados, y es de remarcar que el software de Tierra está funcionando muy bien una vez lo hemos ajustado a los datos reales. La respuesta y la eficiencia están siendo excelentes.

¿Cuándo podrá empezar a hacerse ciencia a partir de todas estas observaciones?

Se está en ello. Ya hemos visto posiciones y espectros (hemos publicado algunos en la ‘Image of the week’ de ESA) y hemos comprobado que somos capaces de distinguir entre estrellas frías y estrellas calientes, estrellas más azules y estrellas más rojas, etc. Es decir, los espectros están demostrando que podremos hacer la ciencia de clasificación tal y como habíamos previsto. También hemos visto estrellas variables ya conocidas, y hemos comprobado que también podremos hacer ciencia sobre ellas. Todavía no hemos hecho ciencia como tal: de hecho, el consorcio de Gaia sólo está encargado de procesar los datos y la ciencia se hará cuando estos sean públicos. La primera publicación de datos está prevista para el verano de 2016, cuando publicaremos las posiciones de todos los objetos detectados y los brillos.

Además intentaremos publicar también la combinación de las posiciones detectadas por Gaia y las que anteriormente registraron Tycho e Hipparcos. Esto permitiría conocer ya los primeros movimientos propios y las primeras paralajes, que nos darían las distancias de las estrellas. Se han hecho ya algunos experimentos en este sentido y los resultados son muy prometedores: la ciencia que podrá hacerse a partir de estos datos comparativos será mucho más amplia que si nos limitáramos a posiciones y flujos. La ciencia con Gaia está garantizada.

La misión Gaia también tiene previsto enviar alertas. ¿En qué consisten y cuántas ha enviado hasta ahora?

Además de las observaciones continuas de la galaxia, Gaia emite alertas cuando descubrimos algo que sería interesante observar desde Tierra de manera inmediata. Por ejemplo, en el caso de detectar supernovas: si una estrella estalla, el estallido de la muerte de la estrella dura tan sólo unas pocas semanas, así que si Gaia descubre una de estas explosiones es importante comunicarlo ipso facto a la comunidad científica para que los observatorios desde Tierra puedan observarla repetidamente. La primera alerta de Gaia se emitió a principios de septiembre de 2014, y desde entonces se han emitido 274 alertas.

También está previsto emitir alertas cuando descubramos un objeto nuevo del Sistema Solar, para que los observatorios puedan seguir ese asteroide desde Tierra y determinar su trayectoria. De este tipo de alertas aún no hemos emitido ninguna, pero prevemos que llegarán a lo largo de este año.

¿Qué va a seguir observando Gaia en los próximos meses?

Gaia ya ha cubierto el cielo entero, y algunas estrellas ya han sido observadas repetidamente. El quid de la cuestión está precisamente en observar las estrellas más de una vez durante cinco o seis años. La única forma de poder medir si una estrella se mueve es observarla en diferentes épocas, y eso es precisamente lo que hace Gaia. Podremos saber cuál es el movimiento de la estrella y la distancia a la que se encuentra, y también detectaremos si los brillos de esas estrellas cambian de intensidad, con lo que sabremos si son variables o no, si ha habido un eclipse de una estrella frente a otra, o si ha habido un tránsito de un planeta por delante de una estrella, etc.

Además de las estrellas de la Vía Láctea, Gaia también observa los objetos del Sistema Solar. ¿Cómo son estas observaciones?

Los cuerpos menores del Sistema Solar son muy irregulares en forma, y la observación del cambio de intensidad que puede hacer Gaia nos permite determinar precisamente qué forma tienen. Observar los objetos repetidamente tiene múltiples aplicaciones científicas, tanto en el Sistema Solar, como en física estelar como en la propia física de la galaxia.

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