Gaia descubre su primera supernova

Data: 12 Setembre 2014

Enllaç Original: ESA webpage

Al barrer el cel par a mesurar posicions i moviments de les estrelles de la nostra galàxia, Gaia ha descobert la seva primera explosió estel·lar en un altra galàxia molt, molt llunyana.

An artist’s impression of a Type Ia supernova – the explosion of a white dwarf locked in a binary system with a companion star. While other types of supernovas are the explosive demises of massive stars, several times more massive than the Sun, Type Ia supernovas are the end product of their less massive counterparts. Low-mass stars, with masses similar to the Sun’s, end their lives gently, puffing up their outer layers and leaving behind a compact white dwarf. Due to their high density, white dwarfs can exert an intense gravitational pull on a nearby companion star, accreting mass from it until the white dwarf reaches a critical mass that then sparks a violent explosion. Credit: ESA/ATG medialab/C. Carreau

Este poderoso acontecimiento, ahora bajo el nombre de Gaia14aaa, tuvo lugar en una galaxia distante unos 500 millones de años-luz, y se dio a conocer gracias a un incremento repentino del brillo de la galaxia entre dos observaciones de Gaia separadas por un mes.

 

Gaia, que empezó sus medidas científicas el 25 de julio, barre repetidamente el cielo entero de forma que cada una de las mil millones de estrellas en el catálogo final se observará en media unas 70 veces en el periodo de cinco años.

 

“Este tipo de mapa con medidas repetidas es muy útil para el estudio de la naturaleza cambiante del cielo” comenta Simon Hodgkin del Instituto de Astronomía en Cambridge (Reino Unido).

 

Muchas fuentes astronómicas son variables: algunas exhiben un patrón regular, con una periodicidad creciente y brillo decreciente, mientras que otras pueden sufrir cambios dramáticos y repentinos.

 

“A medida que Gaia vuelve a los distintos trozos del cielo una y otra vez, tenemos la oportunidad de reconocer miles de ‘estrellas invitadas’ en el tapiz celestial” afirma el Dr Hodgkin. “Estas fuentes transitorias son indicadores de algunos de los fenómenos más poderosos en el Universo, como esta supernova.”

 

El Dr Hodgkin es parte del equipo de Alertas Científicas de Gaia, que incluye astrónomos de las Universidades de Cambridge (Reino Unido) y Warsaw (Polonia), que se dedican a combinar los barridos buscando cambios inesperados.

 

No tardó mucho en aparecer la primera ‘anomalía’ en la forma de un pico de luz repentino que llegaba de una galaxia distante, detectado el 30 de agosto. La misma galaxia aparecía mucho más débil cuando Gaia la observó primero justo un mes antes.

Light curve of galaxy SDSS J132102.26+453223.8 obtained with Gaia. It shows the evolution in time of the galaxy’s brightness. The brightness is indicated on the vertical axis; smaller magnitude values indicate a brighter source. The light curve shows how the galaxy significantly brightened up between the two consecutive Gaia observations because of a stellar explosion, or supernova, which was named Gaia14aaa. This is the first supernova discovered with Gaia. The data points and error bars at the lower left corner are from the first observation, performed on 31 July 2014, and they are in line with previous observations of the same galaxy performed with other telescopes. The data points at the upper right corner are from the second observation, performed on 30 August 2014, and reveal a sudden rise in brightness of almost two magnitudes (roughly a factor of 6). Using data from Gaia and other telescopes, astronomers confirmed that Gaia14aaa is a Type Ia supernova, the explosion of a white dwarf caused by the accretion of matter from a companion star in a binary system. Credits: ESA/Gaia/DPAC/Z. Kostrzewa-Rutkowska (Warsaw University Astronomical Observatory) & G. Rixon (Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge)

“Pensamos inmediatamente que debía ser una supernova, pero necesitamos más pruebas para reclamar el descubrimiento,” explica Łukasz Wyrzykowski del Observatorio Astronómico de la Universidad de Warsaw (Polonia).

 

Otros acontecimientos cósmicos de gran potencia podrían parecerse a una supernova en una galaxia distante, como podrían ser las llamaradas causadas por un agujero negro supermasivo devorando materia en el centro de una galaxia.

 

Sin embargo, en Gaia14aaa, la posición del punto de luz brillante estaba ligeramente separado del centro de la galaxia, lo que sugería que era poco probable que estuviera relacionado con el agujero negro central.

Por eso, los astrónomos buscaron más información en la luz de esta nueva fuente. Además de medir la posición y brillo de estrellas y galaxias, Gaia también produce un espectro con la luz dispersada En realidad, Gaia utiliza dos prismas en las regiones de longitudes de onda rojas y azules produciendo un espectro de baja resolución que permite a los astrónomos buscar huellas de los distintos elementos químicos presentes en la fuente de esa luz.

 

“En el espectro de esta fuente, podíamos ver la presencia de hierro y otros elementos químicos que se encuentran en las supernovas,” dice Nadejda Blagorodnova, estudiante de doctorado en el Instituto de Astronomía en Cambridge.

 

Low-resolution spectrum obtained with the photometric instrument on Gaia of a stellar explosion, or supernova. Astronomers using Gaia discovered that a source had significantly brightened up between two consecutive observations, performed on 31 July 2014 and 30 August 2014, respectively. The boost in brightness was caused by a supernova, which was named Gaia14aaa. This is the first supernova discovered with Gaia. The photometric instrument splits the light of an astronomical source to create a spectrum. In fact, Gaia uses two prisms spanning red and blue wavelength regions to produce a low-resolution spectrum that allows astronomers to seek signatures of the various chemical elements present in the source of that light. Light from the blue photometer is shown in the left half of the graph, and that from the red photometer in the right half. On the horizontal axis, the position of pixels in each of the two photometers is indicated. The pixel position provides a rough indication of the wavelength, with the blue photometer receiving light with shorter wavelengths (330–680 nanometres), and the red photometer with longer wavelengths (640–1050 nanometres). On the vertical axis, the intensity of light registered at each pixel is indicated. The gap at the centre of the graph is an instrumental effect. This low-resolution spectrum contains hints about the nature of this transient source. The blue part of the spectrum appears significantly brighter than the red one, as expected from a supernova of Type Ia – the explosion of a white dwarf caused by the accretion of matter from a companion star in a binary system. The presence of absorption lines from iron, sulphur, oxygen and calcium (indicated in the graph) is also in line with the elements expected from a Type Ia supernova. The astronomers followed up this source with the Isaac Newton Telescope on La Palma, in the Canary Islands, Spain, obtaining a high-resolution spectrum. This not only confirmed that the explosion corresponds to a Type Ia supernova, but also provided an estimate of its distance, proving that it actually happened in the galaxy where it was observed. Credits: ESA/Gaia/DPAC/N. Blagorodnova, M. Fraser, H. Campbell, A. Hall (Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge)

 

Además, la parte azul del espectro aparece significativamente más brillante que la roja, como se espera de una supernova. Y no de cualquier supernova: los astrónomos ya sospechaban que debía tratarse de unasupernova tipo Ia – la explosión de una enana blanca en un sistema binario con una estrella compañera.

 

Aunque otros tipos de supernovas son el resultado de la explosión de estrellas masivas, varias veces más masivas que el Sol, Las supernovas tipo Ia son el resultado final de sus contrapartes menos masivas.

Estrellas de baja masa, con masas parecidas a la del Sol, terminan sus vidas suavemente, inflando y perdiendo sus capas externas y dejando como resultado una enana blanca compacta. Debido a su gran densidad, enanas blancas pueden ejercer una fuerte atracción en una estrella compañera cercana, acretando masa de ella hasta que la enana blanca alcanza una masa critica que entonces produce una explosión violenta.

 

Para confirmar la naturaleza de esta supernova, los astrónomos complementaron los datos de Gaia con más observaciones desde tierra, usando el telescopio Isaac Newton (INT) y el telescopio robótico Liverpool en La Palma, en las islas Canarias.

 

This image shows the supernova named Gaia14aaa as seen on 10 September 2014 with the robotic Liverpool Telescope on La Palma, in the Canary Islands, Spain. This is a Type Ia supernova – the explosion of a white dwarf locked in a binary system with a companion star – and it was discovered in the data collected with ESA’s Gaia satellite on 30 August. In the left panel, the image from the Liverpool Telescope shows both Gaia14aaa and its host galaxy, named SDSS J132102.26+453223.8, which is about 500 million light-years away. In this image, the supernova is slightly offset from the galaxy’s core. The central panel shows an image of the same galaxy, taken as part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, several years before the explosion of Gaia14aaa could be observed from Earth. The right panel was obtained by subtracting the second image, which contains the light emitted by the galaxy, from the first one, which depicts both the galaxy and the supernova. The difference between the two images clearly shows the appearance of Gaia14aaa. The image was taken using the i' filter, which corresponds to red and near-infrared wavelengths. Credit: M. Fraser/S. Hodgkin/L. Wyrzykowski/H. Campbell/N. Blagorodnova/Z. Kostrzewa-Rutkowska/Liverpool Telescope/SDSS

Un espectro de alta resolución, obtenido el 3 de septiembre con el INT, confirmó no sólo que la explosión correspondía a una supernova tipo Ia, sino también facilitó una estimación de su distancia como prueba de que ocurrió en la galaxia donde se observó.

 

“Esta es la primera supernova de lo que esperamos sea una larga serie de descubrimientos con Gaia,” afirma Timo Prusti, el científico jefe del proyecto Gaia de la ESA.

 

Las supernovas son acontecimientos raros de los que sólo ocurren un par de explosiones cada cien años en una galaxia típica. Pero no son tan raras en el cielo, si tenemos en cuenta los cientos de miles de millones de galaxias que pueblan el Universo.

 

Los astrónomos en el equipo de Alertas Científicas están todavía aprendiendo de los datos, probando y optimizando su software de detecciones. En pocos meses, esperan que Gaia empiece a descubrir unas tres supernovas nuevas cada día.

 

Además de supernovas, Gaia descubrirá miles de fuentes transitorias de otros tipos – explosiones estelares en escalas más pequeñas que las supernovas, llamaradas de estrellas jóvenes naciendo, explosiones causadas por un agujero negro devorando una estrella cercana y posiblemente algunos fenómenos completamente nuevos que no se han observado antes.

 

“El cielo está plagado de fuentes de luz peculiares y estamos deseando encontrarlas con Gaia en los próximos años,” concluyó el Dr Prusti.

 

 

Recuerda que puedes seguir las noticias de Gaia con nuestra Gaia Mission App

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