Què és Gaia?


Visió General

Gaia és un satèl·lit de l’Agència Espacial Europea (ESA), i el seu objectiu principal és fer el mapa tridimensional més complert i el més precís de la nostra galàxia mitjançant la observació de mil milions d’estels (al voltant de l’un per cent de la seva població) amb una precisió sense precedents en posició (de l’ordre de microarcsegon, equivalent a distingir des de la Terra una moneda que es trobes en la superfície de la Lluna) i també en els seus moviments. Els paràmetres astrofísics dels estels (temperatura, grandària, composició, …), també s’obtenen gràcies a les mesures fotomètriques. Amb totes aquestes dades, Gaia serà capaç d’aclarir l’estructura, formació i evolució de la nostra galàxia.

Fases de la missió

Fase de disseny

A causa de l’èxit de la missió Hipparcos (1993), la idea de Gaia va començar a prendre forma (1993) amb la finalitat d’obtenir el màxim rendiment del concepte provat amb Hipparcos. En 1999, el concepte i l’estudi de la tecnologia va ser presentada a la ESA i la missió va ser acceptada en 2000 pel seu Comitè de Programa Científic.

Gaia estava previst originalment per ser llançada per un Ariane 5, però es va realitzar un estudi industrial a principis de 2002, per avaluar un allotjament més petit (i més barat) amb la llançadora Soyuz.

Entre 2002 i 2005, es van realitzar estudis de Tecnologia Industrial (Fase B1) en col·laboració amb els científics implicats amb la finalitat de garantir la viabilitat dels objectius científics amb la tecnologia existent.

La construcció del satèl·lit

En 2006, el principal contracte per construir el satèl·lit va ser assignat amb EADS Astrium SAS. Algunes parts del satèl·lit van ser construïdes per altres empreses de tota Europa. En 2006, també es va crear el consorci DPAC per estar preparats per al tractament de dades durant la fase operativa de la missió.

En 2009, el torus de Gaia és completat i el para-sol desplegable i la unitat responsable del processament en temps real i el comandament de les dades transmeses de l’estel (VPU) es van posar a prova.

       El desplegament del para-sol de Gaia durant la prova

En 2010tots els CCD de Gaia es van lliurar, es van completar els primers miralls i les instal·lacions de llançament Soyuz al Centre Espacial de Kourou en la Guyana francesa eren gaire be llestes.

En 2011, les proves del para-sol desplegable es van completar amb èxit. Deu miralls estaven terminats. Totes les CCD es van  muntar en l’estructura del plànol focal. Les proves de vibració de la càrrega útil es van passar amb èxit. El primer llançament amb la mateixa configuració per ser utilitzat per Gaia es va dur a terme amb èxit amb un Soyuz des de Kourou.

En 2012,  una nova estació de seguiment des de Terra va ser assignat a Gaia (Malargüe a Argentina) que s’afegeix als altres dos ja disponibles (New Norcia a Austràlia i Cebreros a Espanya). La separació del llançador, les proves de vibració del mòdul de càrrega útil i la prova tèrmica del mòdul de servei es van completar. El monitor d’angle bàsic (“Basic Angle Monitor”, BAM) i les antenes amb control de fase (“Phased Array Antenna”, PAA), van ser lliurats i integrats en el mòdul de servei.

En 2013es van completar la prova tèrmica del mòdul de càrrega útil i la unitat de gestió de dades. El 23 d’agost, Gaia va arribar a Kourou (Guyana francesa) on finalment s’engegaria. Tot llest per al llançament de Gaia.

Llançament a l’espai

Gaia va començar la seva missió a bord del coet Soyuz-Fregat en Kourou (Guyana francesa) el 19 desembre 2013 (09:12:19 UTC). Després d’un viatge de 30 dies, Gaia assoleix una òrbita al voltant del punt L2 del sistema Terra-Sol (a 1,5 milions km de distància de la Terra en la direcció oposada al Sol) on obtendrà dades durant un període de 5-6 anys.

La publicació de les dades

Les dades de Gaia es donaran a conèixer tan aviat com tot el processament i la verificació es realitzi. La CU9 és la Unitat de DPAC responsable de lliurar les dades de Gaia.

CU9_logo

A causa de la complexitat del processament de dades, el lliurament de les dades està previst en diferents etapes (para més informació visitar la plana web de la ESA):

Primera publicació (Llançament + 22 mesos): Posicions i magnituds del 90 per cent del cel amb precisions acceptables. En particular, els estels observats en comú amb la missió Hipparcos també es lliuraran amb la finalitat de permetre la comparació amb les dades de 1989 a 1993. Primeres dades: 14 Setembre 2016

Segona publicació (Llançament + 28 mesos): Fotometria integrada BP / RP, velocitats radials promiges d’aquells objectes amb velocitat radial constant i paràmetres astrofísics derivats amb bona precisió. Segona publicació: Q4 2017

Tercera publicació (Llançament + 40 mesos): Solucions orbitals dels sistemes binaris, espectres BP / RP / RVS lliurats per a aquells objectes amb paràmetres astrofísics derivats amb bona precisió..

Quarta publicació (Llançament + 65 mesos): Classificació d’estels variables amb fotometria d’època, solucions orbitals per als objectes del Sistema Solar i el catàleg d’objectes múltiples.

Publicació Final (Fin de la missió + 3 anys): El Catàleg consistirà en:

  • Catàlegs complerts d’astrometria, fotometria, i velocitat radial.
  • Totes les solucions disponibles de les estrelles variables i estrelles múltiples.
  • Classificacions de fonts astronòmiques (probabilitats) i múltiples paràmetres astrofísics (derivats a partir de BP/RP, RVS, i astrometria) per estels, estels binàries no resoltes, galàxies i quàsars. Alguns paràmetres poden no estar disponibles per els estels més dèbils.
  • Llista d’exoplanetes.
  • Tota les dades d’època i trànsits per totes les fonts.
  • Totes les observacions realitzades des de Terra per ajudar en el processament de les dades.

 

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