Objectius científics

 


La nostra Galàxia

Com no podem observar la nostra pròpia Galàxia des de fora, encara hi han moltes incògnites sobre la seva estructura. Amb Gaia anem a resoldre moltes d’aquests incògnites. Quants braços espirals té la nostra Galàxia? dos o quatre? Com es mouen els estels quan creuen els braços espirals? Com es va formar la Galàxia? El moviment de la matèria visible en la Galàxia revela informació important sobre la matèria no visible. Gaia ens dóna més detalls sobre aquesta matèria fosca.

Els estels

Els estels són els components més visibles de les galàxies. Els estels es mouen a través de l’espai al voltant del centre galàctic i evolucionen en escales de temps de milers de milions d’anys. La vida humana és molt curta en comparació a aquestes escales de temps, només podem inferir coses sobre la vida dels estels mitjançant l’observació de moltes d’elles i comparant les seves propietats per tal de construir una línia temporal de la seva evolució. Els astrònoms creen aquesta línia temporal utilitzant el diagrama Hertzsprung-Russell (HR). Gaia proporciona les dades necessàries (lluminositat intrínseca i color) per produir el diagrama HR més detallat de la nostra Galàxia mai construït. També ofereix la composició química dels estels per entendre l’enriquiment químic del medi interestel·lar.

Altres descobriments de Gaia

A més dels milers de milions d’estels, Gaia també està observant i descobrint altres tipus d’objectes. Gaia descobrirà al final de la missió unes 200.000 nanes blanques, 50.000 nanes marrons, 30.000 planetes extrasolars, 200 esdeveniments de microlents gravitatòries, 200.000 asteroides (aproximadament un miler d’ells amb òrbites properes a la Terra, potencialment perillosos), 100.000 explosions de novas i supernoves, de 1 a 10 milions de galàxies resoltes, 500.000 quàsars, ..

asteroide

Laboratori de Física Fonamental

L’alta precisió de les observacions Gaia permeten observar els efectes predits per la relativitat general, com la desviació de la llum en passar al costat d’un cos molt massiu, que s’observen en la posició dels estels en el cel. La comparació entre les prediccions fetes per la teoria i les observacions seran una prova molt exigent d’aquesta teoria, i permetrà el perfeccionament d’un dels paràmetres d’aquesta teoria (el paràmetre γ). Les observacions de Gaia també verificaran si la constant de la gravetat G de la llei de Newton és realment constant en el temps.

fonamental

 

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