Els valors de la investigació científica (Barcelona Televisió, 9 Oct 2016)

TV programme: Barcelona Televisió

Web address: http://www.btv.cat/les10noticies/valors-investigacio-cientifica/

Date: 9 October

 

Els valors de la investigació científica

 

Aquesta setmana hem conegut el nom d’alguns dels guanyadors dels Premis Nobel, com els dels tres científics britànics guardonats amb el Nobel de física pel seu descobriment sobre matèria exòtica. El de química se l’han emportat dos francesos pel desenvolupament de màquines moleculars que probablement siguin utilitzades en la creació de nous materials, sensors i sistemes d’emmagatzematge d’energia. També hem conegut al guanyador del Nobel de medicina, premiat pel seu descobriment de cèl·lules que eliminen i reciclen els seus propis residus amb el mecanisme de l’autofàgia.

Per reflexionar sobre el valor de la investigació científica i veure com ha evolucionat al llarg dels segles hem convidat Xavier Luri, professor titular del Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica de la UB;  José Pardo Tomás, historiador de la ciència i investigador del CSIC i Begoña Román, doctora en filosofia de la UB.

Com apunta José Pardo Tomás, historiador de la ciència i investigador del CSIC, “quan Alfred Nobel va fer aquests premis el 1901, la ciència era molt diferent.” La investigació científica ha avançat molt, per aquest motiu Pepe afegeix que “és un despropòsit que el premi es doni a una sola persona.” “Avui en dia la ciència és una empresa col•lectiva i cooperativa. L’avançament del coneixement i la creació de descobriments d’impacte i d’importància són col•lectius.”

“La ciència té un impacte molt important en la nostra vida quotidiana”, tal com afirma Begoña Román, doctora en filosofia de la UB. Tot i això, segons José Pardo, “hi ha molta gent absolutament analfabeta científica”.  Ho podem veure reflectit en la distribució dels estudiants matriculats en estudis universitaris per branca d’ensenyament a l’estat espanyol, on només un 5,7 % es matriculen en ciències, segons el Ministeri d’Educació, Cultura i Esport de l’Estat Espanyol.

Jose Pardo afegeix un altre factor a tenir en compte dins de les investigacions científiques: les pressions dels lobbies.  Xavier Luri, professor titular del Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica de la UB, afirma que “a nivell europeu, a nivell nacional, a nivell de Catalunya, sempre hi ha ‘qui paga mana’. Els organismes europeus, el govern central,  la Generalitat de Catalunya, tenen unes línies prioritàries on posar diners per recerca.”

Com a totes les disciplines l’ètica i la responsabilitat social són necessàries, apunta Begoña Román i afegeix que “censurar el desig de saber-ho tot és dolent. Es pot conèixer tot? Sí. Una altra cosa és si tot s’ha de transformar en tecnologia. És aquí on necessitem comitès d’ètica que diguin què està bé i què no.” Xavier Luri introdueix el paper del ciutadà i considera que “com a societat globalment hem de prendre responsabilitat, és a dir, jo com a individu he ser conscient de què compro, què voto, quin tipus de mobilitat trio… Això té conseqüències i com a societat, cadascú, en una fracció molt petita, hem de ser responsables de cóm això acaba traduint-se en unes accions, en una evolució del futur, en unes inversions. Democratitzar la presa de decisions.

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